04 Degree Programs

//04 Degree Programs
image_pdfimage_print

Bachelor’s Degrees

Bachelor’s degrees are awarded in 25 majors. Most majors include a variety of emphases from which to choose as well as licensure programs that qualify students for a career in education. Please see the departmental curricula later in this catalog for complete descriptions of the emphases and licensure available within each major.

Major Requirements

A major consists of no fewer than 32 and no more than 62 semester hours, including all required courses for the major, regardless of prefix. Interdisciplinary and student-designed majors (see guidelines below) are exempt from the 62-hour cap. Not all current majors may be used towards an interdisciplinary or student-designed major. Departmental or program requirements for specific courses, field experiences, or comprehensive tests must be met. Those requirements are specified along with the departmental curricula.

Minor Requirements

A minor typically consists of a minimum of 18 credit hours of study within a particular academic discipline. Minors are available in biology, business administration, chemistry, communication, English, environmental science, environmental stewardship, graphic design, history, mathematics, Spanish, peace studies, performing arts, philosophy and religion, psychology, sociology,  transformative entrepreneurship, and visual arts. Requirements for the minors in each of these areas are specified in the departmental sections of this catalog. For the minor to be recognized on the transcript, the student must achieve a minimal GPA of 2.0 in the minor coursework.

Teacher Education Program

The Teacher Education Program at McPherson College focuses on three major levels of licensure. The type of degree earned (BA or BS) mirrors the content area. The following are lists of the levels and the programs:

6-12 Licensure
Biology, Chemistry, English, English for Speakers of Other Languages, History and Government, Mathematics, High-Incidence Special Education, Speech/Theatre.

K-6 Licensure
Elementary Education, English for Speakers of Other Languages, High-Incidence Special Education

PK-12 Licensure
Art, Health, Music, Spanish, Sport Studies

 

Bachelor of Arts Degrees

A minimum of one hundred twenty-four (124) academic credit hours are required for the B.A. degree. A Bachelor of Arts degree may be obtained for the following majors:

  • Art and Design
  • Communication
  • Digital Media
  • English
  • History
  • Music
  • Theatre
  • Philosophy and Religion
  • Religion, Politics, and Law
  • Spanish

Students completing one of the above majors who want a Bachelor of Science degree must take eight additional hours in a B.S. major beyond the general education requirements in that area.

Bachelor of Science Degrees

One hundred twenty-four (124) academic credit hours are required for the B.S. degree. A Bachelor of Science degree may be obtained for the following majors:

  • Automotive Restoration Technology
  • Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Business Administration
  • Chemistry
  • Elementary Education (including Special Education licensure)
  • Environmental Stewardship
  • Health Science
  • Healthcare Management
  • Politics and History
  • Mathematics
  • Psychology
  • Secondary Education (see Teacher Education Program section above for options)
  • Sociology
  • Sport Studies (Health and P.E. licensure available)
  • Sport Management

Students completing one of the above majors who want a Bachelor of Arts degree must take two semesters of a single second human language.

Requirements for a Bachelor’s Degree

  • A minimum of 124 credit hours.
  • Fulfillment of the major program requirements.
  • Fulfillment of general education requirements, or completion of an Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degree at an accredited institution. (Note: Education majors must complete all of the general education requirements, even if they have earned an associate’s degree.)
  • A minimum, overall residential GPA of 2.0.
  • A minimum, residential GPA of 2.0 in the major.
  • A minimum of 32 credit hours completed at McPherson College.
  • 20 of the last 30 or 40 of the last 60 credit hours completed at McPherson College.
  • A minimum of 8 hours of the major completed at McPherson College.
  • The last 60 credit hours completed at a four-year college or university.
  • No more than 64 credit hours from two-year institutions counted toward the degree.
  • At least six hours outside the home department of the major, in addition to the major and general education requirements. (Students with more than one major automatically meet this requirement. Students with a student-designed major must complete at least six hours outside both home departments of the major.)
  • Approval by majority vote at Faculty Meeting.

Interdisciplinary Programs and Student-Designed Major Programs

Interdisciplinary programs and student-designed major programs allow faculty and students to combine courses from two or three departments into one major.

Interdisciplinary Programs

Interdisciplinary programs are typically initiated by faculty.  The following guidelines must be followed:

  • An interdisciplinary major shall consist of a minimum of 44 semester hours and a maximum of 75 semester hours.
  • The program of study shall consist of at least 20 semester hours from two different departments.
  • The instructors supervising the program must come from from the departments providing 20 or more semester hours to the program of study.

When faculty initiate an interdisciplinary major program, two or more instructors from the appropriate departments plan the interdisciplinary concentration and submit the proposal to the Educational Policies Committee following the guidelines available from the registrar’s office. Examples of faculty initiated interdisciplinary majors are Environmental Stewardship, Health Science and Digital Media.

Student-Designed Major Programs

Student-Designed Major programs are initiated by the student.

The following guidelines must be followed:

  • The student must complete the Student Designed Major form available in the registrar’s office or on Bulldog Connect.
  • An interdisciplinary major shall consist of a minimum of 44 semester hours and a maximum of 75 semester hours.
  • The program of study shall consist of at least 20 semester hours from two different departments.
  • The instructors supervising the program must come from the departments providing 20 or more semester hours to the program of study.
  • The program must be approved by the Educational Policies Committee no later than the second semester of the junior year.

A student may, in consultation with faculty advisors, propose a previously unestablished student-designed major. The chairs of each department represented in the program must approve the proposal. The proposal is submitted to the Educational Policies Committee (EPC) according to the guidelines. The student and a faculty advisor must present the proposal to EPC in person to explain and defend its academic integrity.

The following are examples of student-designed majors that have been approved by Educational Policies Committee and completed by recent graduates of McPherson College. They are listed here to illustrate the possibilities students may explore.

  • Family Life and Human Development
  • Pre-Nursing and Human Behavior
  • Bioethics/International Studies/Political Science
  • Psychology and Music

2022|04 Degree Programs, Catalog 22-23|

Combined Bachelor/Master of Education Degree

The graduate level courses offered by the Curriculum and Instruction Department prepare candidates to grow professionally as service-oriented educators. Choose any of the following options: an ESOL licensure only, SPED licensure only or combine those programs with the core graduate courses in education to earn the M.Ed.

These three programs (ESOL licensure, SPED licensure, and the core) are provided by the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and, like the undergraduate Teacher Education Program, are governed by the Teacher Education Board.

Teacher Education Program

The Teacher Education Program at McPherson College is accredited by the Kansas State Department of Education (900 SW Jackson Street, Topeka, Kansas 66612); and by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), www.ncate.org (now known as Council for the Accreditation of Education Preparation (CAEP), www.caepnet.org). This accreditation covers the Teacher Education Program at McPherson College; however, the accreditation does not include individual education courses that the institution offers to P-12 educators for professional development, re-licensure, or other purposes.

Mission Statement

The mission of the Teacher Education Program of McPherson College is to develop service-oriented educators who effectively blend the art and science of teaching.

Goals, Objectives, and Dispositions

Goal I: The candidate has the knowledge bases necessary to be an effective teacher in her/his field.

To accomplish this goal, the service-oriented educator will:

Objectives:

  1. Acquire a broad liberal arts knowledge base.
  2. Demonstrate proficiency in his/her major area of licensure.
  3. Acquire effective strategies of teaching in all appropriate content areas and for all learners.
  4. Recognize how students learn and develop.

Disposition: Appreciate the connections between various areas of knowledge and commit to continuous learning.

Goal II: The candidate can apply effective teaching strategies to meet the needs of all learners.

To accomplish this goal, the service-oriented educator will:

Objectives:

  1. Use appropriate best practices for specific content areas and for diverse learners.
  2. Reflect upon his/her teaching and analyze the practices.
  3. Demonstrate understanding and use of formative and summative assessments and make modifications based on them.
  4. Provide motivational techniques based on students’ developmental and environmental needs.

Disposition: Value and respect students’ varied talents and abilities and project enthusiasm for teaching all learners.

Goal III: The candidate fosters relationships and collaborates with school constituencies. To accomplish this goal, the service-oriented educator will:

Objectives:

  1. Communicate effectively in both written and oral formats and through the use of technology
  2. Solicit input from students, parents, colleagues, and the greater community.
  3. Act on information received from stakeholders.

Disposition: Value the many ways in which people seek to communicate and encourage various modes of communication.

In addition to meeting the Goals, Objectives, and Dispositions of The Teacher Education Program, the graduate-level program must also meet the additional graduate-level Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. Demonstrate graduate-level problems solving and analytical skills.
  2. (Re)Establish a personal philosophy of education.
  3. Develop graduate-level action research and writing skills.
  4. Develop an understanding of current research, best practices, and new approaches to teaching and/or learning.

Graduate Admission Procedures

Procedures for admittance into the Teacher Education Program and Student Teaching are outlined in detail in the Advisor/Advisee Handbook and/or the Policies and Procedure Manual. These handbooks are available in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. College advisors also have copies of these handbooks. The handbook is also available online. Students should read the handbook or consult their advisors for a detailed account of admission requirements and procedures.

Graduate Admission Requirements and Process

Required of all applicants:

  1. Application (no fee required)
  2. Proof of bachelor’s degree in the form of an official transcript from an accredited institution indicating the date the degree was awarded
  3. GPA of 3.0

Required for those seeking M.Ed. degree:

  1. Essay stating professional goals (approximately 300 words)
  2. Two letters of recommendation

All materials are reviewed by a subcommittee of the Teacher Education Board. The subcommittee’s recommendation is forwarded to Teacher Education Board for final approval.

Conditional Admission

Candidates not meeting the GPA requirement identified above may be admitted to the program on a conditional status assuming there is reasonable evidence of candidate success. Conditionally admitted candidates must earn a minimum GPA of 3.0 in their first six hours in order to remain in the program.

Licensure Requirements

The Kansas State Department of Education (KSDE) is the licensing authority in Kansas. According to Kansas regulations, the ESOL and SPED endorsements are considered added endorsements and require a teacher to already hold a license in another endorsement area prior to obtaining these endorsements.

Those teachers choosing to add the ESOL endorsement must pass Praxis licensure exam 5361 with a minimum score of 138.

As a general rule, the ESOL endorsement will be added at the level (k-6, 6-12, or pk-12) at which the regular license is held. It is possible, in some cases, to add the endorsement at another level. Please consult the licensure officer (Dr. Kirchner) for details.

It is possible to seek the licensure-only option for the ESOL endorsement for candidates who do not desire the graduate courses or who already hold a master’s degree.

A provisional license is available for candidates who have been hired to teach ESOL classes while simultaneously completing the licensure coursework. A provisional license is good for two years and may be renewed once with proof of successful completion of coursework. In order to obtain the provisional license a candidate must 1) already hold a valid teaching license, 2) have completed at least 50 percent of the ESOL program, 3) complete a plan of study, and 4) show proof of employment in the area.

Those students seeking the SPED endorsement must complete the special education content area test, Praxis II. Students will complete the 5543 Special Education Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications test with a minimum score of 155.

It is possible to seek the licensure-only option for the SPED endorsement for candidates who do not desire the graduate courses or who already hold a master’s degree.

Licensure in Kansas

In the state of Kansas, teaching is considered to be a profession. Therefore, the Kansas State Department of Education has a Professional Practices Commission to exercise disciplinary and advisory functions over those requesting licensure or working as a certified professional. Teacher licensure can be denied, suspended, or revoked for both felony and non-felony actions.

McPherson College is in compliance with the federal Title II reporting guidelines.

Student Responsibility

Students are ultimately responsible for following procedures and proper sequencing of events leading to professional development and licensure. It is important for students who plan to enter the Teacher Education Program at McPherson College to contact the chair of the program and/or the appropriate advisor.

ESOL Licensure Program

The ESOL Graduate Licensure Program will prepare you for KSDE ESOL endorsement at the k-6, 6-12, or pk-12 levels. This 15 credit hour program is geared to educators wishing to work with culturally and linguistically diverse students, but will also enhance the teaching skills for those in the regular classroom.

The ESOL licensure courses can be taken in conjunction with the core courses or, for those seeking licensure only, can be taken as a stand-alone program. Although most candidates taking courses will be licensed teachers, the ESOL graduate certificate has open enrollment for anyone wishing to learn more about this field, such as those working with adult English language learners.

Required courses: (all courses are 3 credit hours)

      • CI 628 Methods for Teaching ESOL
      • CI 638 Language Assessment
      • CI 648 Applied Linguistics
      • CI 658 Cultural Diversity
      • CI 668 Practicum

To receive the KSDE ESOL endorsement, candidates must be already hold an active Kansas teaching license and pass the English to Speakers of Other Languages Praxis exam 5361 with a minimum score of 138. See more information under Licensure Requirements.

SPED Licensure Program

The SPED Licensure Program will prepare you for KSDE high-incidence (formerly adaptive) Special Education endorsement at the k-6, pk-12, or 6-12 levels. This program is designed for educators wishing to work with students who have mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbances, high functioning autism spectrum disorders, ADD/ADHD, and learning disabilities, but will also enhance the skills of those who chose to remain in the regular classroom.

The SPED licensure courses can be taken in conjunction with the core courses or, for those seeking licensure only, can be taken as a stand-alone licensure program.

Required courses for k-6

      • CI 610 Foundations for Special Education Services (4 credit hours)
        CI 615 General Methods for Special Education Services (4 credit hours)
      • SE 731 or SE 733 k-6 Clinical Experience or Internship (Fall, Spring)

Required courses for 6-12

      • SE 661 and SE 671 6-12 Methods and Field Experience (Fall, Spring)
      • SE 771 or SE 773 6-12 Clinical Experience or Internship (Fall, Spring)

Required courses for pk-12

      • SE 641 and SE 651 pk-3 Methods and Field Experience (Fall, Spring)
      • SE 681 and SE 691 4-12 Methods and Field Experience (Fall, Spring)
      • SE 751 or SE 753 pk-12 Clinical Experience or Internship (Fall, Spring)

This program is designed to be completed in two academic years, including one summer.

To receive the KSDE High-Incidence SPED endorsement, candidates must already hold an active Kansas teaching license and pass the Special Education: Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications Praxis exam 5543 with a minimum score of 155. See more information under Licensure Requirements.

Graduate Courses

The core graduate courses are designed around a project-based model in which students identify an area of interest, explore possibilities for change, implement the change, and report the results. Students focus on a perceived problem in their local environment or experiment with a new teaching technique. The courses are sequenced to walk students step-by-step through the project while simultaneously providing the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to make wise decisions.

A sub-thread running through the courses is that of the teacher as leader. Activities built into the courses will help students gain confidence to become better advocates for their students, colleagues, and district.

Required courses: (all courses are 3 credit hours)

      • CI 615 Foundations in Education (Fall)
      • CI 620 Fundamentals of Action Research (Spring)
      • CI 625 Curriculum and Instruction (Summer)
      • CI 640 Teacher as Leader (Fall)
      • CI 675 Master’s Research Project and Capstone Experience (Spring)

The 15 credit hours of core courses along with the 15 credit hours in the ESOL graduate licensureprogram comprise the needed courses for the M.Ed.

 

 

2022|04 Degree Programs, Catalog 22-23|

Master of Education Degree

The graduate level courses offered by the Curriculum and Instruction Department prepare candidates to grow professionally as service-oriented educators. Choose any of the following options: an ESOL licensure only, SPED licensure only or combine those programs with the core graduate courses in education to earn the M.Ed.

These three programs (ESOL licensure, SPED licensure, and the core) are provided by the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and, like the undergraduate Teacher Education Program, are governed by the Teacher Education Board.

Teacher Education Program

The Teacher Education Program at McPherson College is accredited by the Kansas State Department of Education (900 SW Jackson Street, Topeka, Kansas 66612); and by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), www.ncate.org (now known as Council for the Accreditation of Education Preparation (CAEP), www.caepnet.org). This accreditation covers the Teacher Education Program at McPherson College; however, the accreditation does not include individual education courses that the institution offers to P-12 educators for professional development, re-licensure, or other purposes.

Mission Statement

The mission of the Teacher Education Program of McPherson College is to develop service-oriented educators who effectively blend the art and science of teaching.

Goals, Objectives, and Dispositions

Goal I: The candidate has the knowledge bases necessary to be an effective teacher in her/his field.

To accomplish this goal, the service-oriented educator will:

Objectives:

  1. Acquire a broad liberal arts knowledge base.
  2. Demonstrate proficiency in his/her major area of licensure.
  3. Acquire effective strategies of teaching in all appropriate content areas and for all learners.
  4. Recognize how students learn and develop.

Disposition: Appreciate the connections between various areas of knowledge and commit to continuous learning.

Goal II: The candidate can apply effective teaching strategies to meet the needs of all learners.

To accomplish this goal, the service-oriented educator will:

Objectives:

  1. Use appropriate best practices for specific content areas and for diverse learners.
  2. Reflect upon his/her teaching and analyze the practices.
  3. Demonstrate understanding and use of formative and summative assessments and make modifications based on them.
  4. Provide motivational techniques based on students’ developmental and environmental needs.

Disposition: Value and respect students’ varied talents and abilities and project enthusiasm for teaching all learners.

Goal III: The candidate fosters relationships and collaborates with school constituencies. To accomplish this goal, the service-oriented educator will:

Objectives:

  1. Communicate effectively in both written and oral formats and through the use of technology
  2. Solicit input from students, parents, colleagues, and the greater community.
  3. Act on information received from stakeholders.

Disposition: Value the many ways in which people seek to communicate and encourage various modes of communication.

In addition to meeting the Goals, Objectives, and Dispositions of The Teacher Education Program, the graduate-level program must also meet the additional graduate-level Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. Demonstrate graduate-level problems solving and analytical skills.
  2. (Re)Establish a personal philosophy of education.
  3. Develop graduate-level action research and writing skills.
  4. Develop an understanding of current research, best practices, and new approaches to teaching and/or learning.

Graduate Admission Procedures

Procedures for admittance into the Teacher Education Program and Student Teaching are outlined in detail in the Advisor/Advisee Handbook and/or the Policies and Procedure Manual. These handbooks are available in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. College advisors also have copies of these handbooks. The handbook is also available online. Students should read the handbook or consult their advisors for a detailed account of admission requirements and procedures.

Graduate Admission Requirements and Process

Required of all applicants:

  1. Application (no fee required)
  2. Proof of bachelor’s degree in the form of an official transcript from an accredited institution indicating the date the degree was awarded
  3. GPA of 3.0

Required for those seeking M.Ed. degree:

  1. Essay stating professional goals (approximately 300 words)
  2. Two letters of recommendation

All materials are reviewed by a subcommittee of the Teacher Education Board. The subcommittee’s recommendation is forwarded to Teacher Education Board for final approval.

Conditional Admission

Candidates not meeting the GPA requirement identified above may be admitted to the program on a conditional status assuming there is reasonable evidence of candidate success. Conditionally admitted candidates must earn a minimum GPA of 3.0 in their first six hours in order to remain in the program.

Licensure Requirements

The Kansas State Department of Education (KSDE) is the licensing authority in Kansas. According to Kansas regulations, the ESOL and SPED endorsements are considered added endorsements and require a teacher to already hold a license in another endorsement area prior to obtaining these endorsements.

Those teachers choosing to add the ESOL endorsement must pass Praxis licensure exam 5361 with a minimum score of 138.

As a general rule, the ESOL endorsement will be added at the level (k-6, 6-12, or pk-12) at which the regular license is held. It is possible, in some cases, to add the endorsement at another level. Please consult the licensure officer (Dr. Kirchner) for details.

It is possible to seek the licensure-only option for the ESOL endorsement for candidates who do not desire the graduate courses or who already hold a master’s degree.

A provisional license is available for candidates who have been hired to teach ESOL classes while simultaneously completing the licensure coursework. A provisional license is good for two years and may be renewed once with proof of successful completion of coursework. In order to obtain the provisional license a candidate must 1) already hold a valid teaching license, 2) have completed at least 50 percent of the ESOL program, 3) complete a plan of study, and 4) show proof of employment in the area.

Those students seeking the SPED endorsement must complete the special education content area test, Praxis II. Students will complete the 5543 Special Education Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications test with a minimum score of 155.

It is possible to seek the licensure-only option for the SPED endorsement for candidates who do not desire the graduate courses or who already hold a master’s degree.

Licensure in Kansas

In the state of Kansas, teaching is considered to be a profession. Therefore, the Kansas State Department of Education has a Professional Practices Commission to exercise disciplinary and advisory functions over those requesting licensure or working as a certified professional. Teacher licensure can be denied, suspended, or revoked for both felony and non-felony actions.

McPherson College is in compliance with the federal Title II reporting guidelines.

Student Responsibility

Students are ultimately responsible for following procedures and proper sequencing of events leading to professional development and licensure. It is important for students who plan to enter the Teacher Education Program at McPherson College to contact the chair of the program and/or the appropriate advisor.

ESOL Licensure Program

The ESOL Graduate Licensure Program will prepare you for KSDE ESOL endorsement at the k-6, 6-12, or pk-12 levels. This 15 credit hour program is geared to educators wishing to work with culturally and linguistically diverse students, but will also enhance the teaching skills for those in the regular classroom.

The ESOL licensure courses can be taken in conjunction with the core courses or, for those seeking licensure only, can be taken as a stand-alone program. Although most candidates taking courses will be licensed teachers, the ESOL graduate certificate has open enrollment for anyone wishing to learn more about this field, such as those working with adult English language learners.

Required courses: (all courses are 3 credit hours)

      • CI 628 Methods for Teaching ESOL
      • CI 638 Language Assessment
      • CI 648 Applied Linguistics
      • CI 658 Cultural Diversity
      • CI 668 Practicum

To receive the KSDE ESOL endorsement, candidates must be already hold an active Kansas teaching license and pass the English to Speakers of Other Languages Praxis exam 5361 with a minimum score of 138. See more information under Licensure Requirements.

SPED Licensure Program

The SPED Licensure Program will prepare you for KSDE high-incidence (formerly adaptive) Special Education endorsement at the k-6, pk-12, or 6-12 levels. This program is designed for educators wishing to work with students who have mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbances, high functioning autism spectrum disorders, ADD/ADHD, and learning disabilities, but will also enhance the skills of those who chose to remain in the regular classroom.

The SPED licensure courses can be taken in conjunction with the core courses or, for those seeking licensure only, can be taken as a stand-alone licensure program.

Required courses for k-6

      • CI 610 Foundations for Special Education Services (4 credit hours)
        CI 615 General Methods for Special Education Services (4 credit hours)
      • SE 731 or SE 733 k-6 Clinical Experience or Internship (Fall, Spring)

Required courses for 6-12

      • SE 661 and SE 671 6-12 Methods and Field Experience (Fall, Spring)
      • SE 771 or SE 773 6-12 Clinical Experience or Internship (Fall, Spring)

Required courses for pk-12

      • SE 641 and SE 651 pk-3 Methods and Field Experience (Fall, Spring)
      • SE 681 and SE 691 4-12 Methods and Field Experience (Fall, Spring)
      • SE 751 or SE 753 pk-12 Clinical Experience or Internship (Fall, Spring)

This program is designed to be completed in two academic years, including one summer.

To receive the KSDE High-Incidence SPED endorsement, candidates must already hold an active Kansas teaching license and pass the Special Education: Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications Praxis exam 5543 with a minimum score of 155. See more information under Licensure Requirements.

Graduate Courses

The core graduate courses are designed around a project-based model in which students identify an area of interest, explore possibilities for change, implement the change, and report the results. Students focus on a perceived problem in their local environment or experiment with a new teaching technique. The courses are sequenced to walk students step-by-step through the project while simultaneously providing the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to make wise decisions.

A sub-thread running through the courses is that of the teacher as leader. Activities built into the courses will help students gain confidence to become better advocates for their students, colleagues, and district.

Required courses: (all courses are 3 credit hours)

      • CI 615 Foundations in Education (Fall)
      • CI 620 Fundamentals of Action Research (Spring)
      • CI 625 Curriculum and Instruction (Summer)
      • CI 640 Teacher as Leader (Fall)
      • CI 675 Master’s Research Project and Capstone Experience (Spring)

The 15 credit hours of core courses along with the 15 credit hours in the ESOL graduate licensureprogram comprise the needed courses for the M.Ed.

 

 

2022|04 Degree Programs, Catalog 22-23|